The Importance of Food in Our Life

Food is the basic necessity for all of us and we all earn money to get this basic necessity. We need to eat 3 meals a day to keep our body running so that we can manage our daily functions. Many of us ” Eat food to live” while there are others who “Live to eat food”. In fact, nutrition assumes a special importance in each and everyone’s life.

Types of Foodstuff

The food is normally divided into two main categories given below:-

1- Vegetarian food- These include stuffs like milk, fruits and vegetables. These are those stuff that are obtained from plants and trees.

2- Non- Vegetarian food- These include stuffs like meat and meat products, chicken, turkey, fish, squid etc. Non vegetarian food are generally obtained by killing animals.

Nutrition from Foodstuff

Nutrition from food is necessary and without this daily dose of nutrition animals may not survive for long. It is important to support life as nourishment obtained helps the cells present in our body to carry out its routine functions. Different stuffs provide different levels of nutrition. The nutrients are divided into six classes which are given below:-

1- Carbohydrates- These provide energy to the body and are found in items like rice, bread and other grain products.

2- Fats- It consists of a group of compounds that are generally insoluble in water. These are found in items like butter, ghee, fish oil, lard etc. Fats are stored in the human body for use at a later use for energy.

3- Minerals- These are needed for the maintenance of proper functions in the body like the transport of oxygen throughout the body, stimulating growth, normalizing the nervous system etc. Minerals can be found from a variety of food items such as meat, cereals including cereal products such as bread, fish, milk and dairy foods.

4- Protein- These are important components of muscles, skin and hair. Proteins are helpful in creation of various enzymes in the body that control various important functions. Major sources of protein include milk, meat, fish, egg, and vegetables.

5- Vitamins- They are an essential component of animal body required for good health. It is organic compound required as a nutrient. Good sources of vitamins are fruits, vegetables, cereals, milk and eggs.

6- Water- It is popularly known as the”elixir of life”. The human body comprises of 55-78 % of water. It is required for the essential functioning of the various important parts of the human body.

Thus, these points given above reflect the importance of food and nutrients in our diet. As long as a human is alive, he needs water and foods in the required quantity.

A Few Fantastic Health Benefits of Yoga

There are so many of us who inevitably end up associating yoga with its “physical” attributes. In fact, they shy away from it simply thinking that yoga is strictly meant for the physically fit or the athletic ones. A highly erroneous notion. The concept is far from truth-very far! Yes, it’s a physical exercise. No doubt about it. However, one needs to understand that this ancient practice entails much more than just “body”- yogis aim for that perfect realm of stability where the mind, body and spirit work in cohesion. Today, we will be primarily discussing the health benefits of yoga but not before clearly pointing out that you can practice it even if you are not athletic! Here’s what you need to find out about the health benefits of yoga. They are simply fantastic.

It can bolster the function of lungs

Deep purposeful breathing is a part of the yogic experience. Such exercises, as per studies, can actually improve the functioning of lungs. With a better-functioning pair of lungs you can expect to perform a lot of activities better – like running or walking long distances without getting tired.

Exercises bolster the condition of your heart as well

Patients with high blood pressure and cholesterol can benefit a lot from yogic exercises. Studies, for instance, have shown that individuals practicing yoga on a regular basis have lower blood cholesterol levels and reduced risks of blood cholesterol level. What more? The efficaciousness of the breathing exercises is now even harnessed by doctors to address heart ailments. Medical practitioners duly acknowledge the usefulness of the right breathing techniques and exercises when it comes to reversing symptoms of several stress induced diseases or heart ailments.

These exercises help you master the right postures

The importance of sitting, working and walking in the right posture is mostly undermined by us. We often fail to identify the evils of wrong postures. For instance, we just fail to realize that wrong postures can actually give birth to a number of problems including neck pain, shoulder pain and so much more.

Practicing yoga can help you build stronger muscles so that they can support the right postures. Yogic exercises also add flexibility to your body thereby eliminating muscle tension so that you are able to walk and sit with your shoulders straight. You can sit with your stomach tucked in as well.

Yoga can also help you fight depression

Meditation or relaxation exercises can help you get out of depressive thoughts as well. For many depressed people, when every measure fails, yoga turns out to be the answer.

So, what exactly are you waiting for? It doesn’t matter how old you are or how athletic (or not) you are, you can always trust the therapeutic benefits of yoga in a major way. Find a credentialed instructor and get going! Make sure you are exploring more about these exercises and their benefits by reading up about the same. There is no dearth of resources to help you there. Make sure you’re keeping these points in view.

How To Stop a Dachshund Puppy From Biting

Dachshunds are tenacious, independent and smart, originally bred to hunt and kill badgers.  These characteristics have been passed down the generations which can cause problems with barking, biting and aggression if Dachshunds are not well trained from a young age

As soon as you see your Dachshund puppy biting it is time to address the problem.  Dachshund puppies look cute and you wouldn’t think that the small nips they give would be a problem, but not stopping the behavior can result in significant aggression problems later in life.

Start Young

If you were to watch a puppy grow up in a litter you would see that biting is regulated by the puppies themselves.  When one puppy bites another, the outcome is typically that the puppy they bite turns round and bites them back.  This is a very effective deterrent resulting in most puppies knowing not to bite by the time they are ready to go to their new home.

If you have problems with your Dachshund puppy biting, take immediate action!  At this young age your puppy is play biting.  You should never hit your Dachshund, especially not at this age when they will not understand what they have done wrong.  Doing so will frighten them and can lead to problems with anxiety and aggression as they grow up.

To stop your Dachshund puppy biting you need to take a consistent, fair approach, not just to the biting, but to their behavior in general.  Reward good behaviors and discourage bad behaviors, making certain that you are not giving mixed messages.  For example, if you want to stop your Dachshund puppy biting then you shouldn’t play games that involve chasing.  Remember, Dachshunds were bred to chase and catch prey and will likely grab hold of you if you run from them.

Ways to Stop Puppy Biting

When your Dachshund puppy bites your instinct may be to punish them, but this is the wrong thing to do.  Instead tell them “no”, or make a high pitched squeal when they bite, then giving them something acceptable to chew on such as a dog toy as soon as they let go.  Making a yelping noise can be very effective in stopping biting as it is similar to the noise that your puppies litter mates made when they were bitten.  Your Dachshund puppy will soon learn that biting you is not OK, but biting their toys is.

If you get an older Dachshund puppy who has not been taught not to bite your task may be more difficult.  If the technique described above doesn’t work then you should consider taking them to puppy training classes.  In addition to having expert help with the biting problem, your Dachshund puppy will have the opportunity to be well socialized with both people and other dogs their age.

How Your Choice in Cars Reflects Your Personality

Automobiles have become an integral part of our society. Intended to be used as a tool to get from point A to point B cars have extended their use in today’s society.

This article discusses a few points on car selection and personality. Cars have long stopped being tools that get us from one point to another and have transformed into status symbols and reflect the driver’s values and personality.

Often people judge a person by the car they drive. If you are stepping out a Bentley for example, you would garner much respect from just about anyone who witnesses you getting out of the car.

The condition and look of your car has extended the mantra of your discipline being reflected on how your wear your clothes. Being seen parking a dirty car is the equivalent to going to the office in a disheveled suit. Analogously, alighting from an impeccably detailed car is the prim and proper look that many office executives are known for.

In fact nowadays what you drive adds more to your reputation than what you wear. Studies have shown than rides reflect more of the personality of the person than clothes. Cars have ceased becoming tools and have transcended into the realm of lifestyle.

Playboys want fast looking coupes while daddies are opting to get minivans. Buicks are said to cater to the less internet savvy drivers compared to Honda which has an overwhelmingly digital age buyer group.

This trend even goes to driving tendencies. Sports cars owners tend to be a little less patient on the stop light than station wagon drivers. The gigantic proportions of some SUVs tend to make their owners bully smaller sized vehicles in rush hour traffic.

Brands like Lexus are tend to be bought by wealth and well educated owners. Aside from that demographic the brand caters mostly to married couples. This reflects stability and a more settled down personality for the buyers.

Your choices in the car you are driving very much reflect your personality. Stop thinking of your car as something that takes from one place to another but take great care in choosing your car. You may not think it matters but your peers will gauge your personality on the car you drive.

The Importance of Warming Up and Cooling Down

One of the most important factors in injury prevention is warming up and cooling down, and should not be neglected.

Warming up refers to a preparatory phase at the beginning of an exercise session. Warming up generally involves a period of low-impact exercise regimes which prepare the body for the more strenuous aspects of the sporting activity. Warming up is an important aspect of exercise in reducing the risk of injury that would possibly happen if over stretching occurred, without the person being physically warmed up and prepared for the exercise.

Cooling down refers to a short period at the end of an exercise session. The cooling down phase, again, tends to involve a short period of low-impact exercise which gradually returns the body to its ‘resting state’. The cooling down phase is believed to reduce the risk of muscular soreness which may occur the day after an exercise session, and reduce the risk of fainting or collapse after such a session.

The Warming Up Session

An exercise session should always commence with a period of warm up. In some cases it may take the form of a series of specially designed preparatory exercise, whilst in other sessions it will simply involve performing the activity at a low density before increasing the intensity to the desired level. The warming up period is important for the following reasons:

  • It gets the body ready for the physcal exertion that follows. This optimises the physical condition, enabling the body to cope more easily with the activity. It also enables the athlete to get the most benefit from the session.
  • If the warm-up session has specific movements relating to the sporting activity the muscles can be re-educated in preparation for the coming activities.
  • It reduces the risk of injury (cold muscles do not stretch very easily) and it reduces the risk of premature fatigue which can occur if the cardiovascular system is unprepared for strenuous activity.
  • It prepares cardiac function for increased activity and reduces the risk of stress being placed on the heart.

A typical warm-up may involve some ‘loosening exercises’ followed by a few minutes of low-impact aerobic activity and then a series of stretching exercises. This may last for approximately five to fifteen minutes depending upon the intensity of the session which follows. Loosening exercises at the start of the warm up may include activities such as ‘stretching’ and ‘running on the spot’. These are gentle activities which begin to prepare the body for exercise and are especially important if the athlete has been inactive for a while.

The aerobic exercise may involve activities such as cycling on an exercise cycle. This has the effect of increasing the heart rate, diverting blood to the exercising muscles and raising the overall temperature of the muscles.

Stretching exercises provide the final phase of warm up and ensure that the muscles and tendons are prepared for the exercise. An important reason for stretching exercises is to prevent the muscles and tendons from being overstretched during the session. Such a warm up will also prepare the joints for physical activity.

The Effects of Warm Up on the Body are:

  • Cold muscle, tendons and connectinve tissue do not stretch very easily. Stretching without a warm-up is therefore unlikely to produce the best effects. Warming up also relaxes the body and muscle which further allows them to be stretched effectively. It is also believed that cold muscles and tendons are more prone to damage since they are more likely to tear when cold.
  • A warm-up increases the heart rate gradually, and aerobic exercise prepares the heart and cardiovascular system, together with the muscles, gradually, for exercise.
  • A warm-up also causes the blood to be diverted to the exercising muscles. This is achieved by getting the blood vessels that supply the muscles being used, to dilate. This extra blood is diverted from areas of the body not as important for exercising, such as the gut.
  • Exercising, without warming up, may cause the muscles to work without an adequate oxygen supply. This forces them to use anaerobic processes to supplement their production of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). As a consequence, lactic acid accumulates and the muscles may become prematurely fatigued.

A warm-up increases the temperature of the body. This increase in temperature facilitates and speeds up many of the processes associated with exercise metabolism. It increases the rate of nerve impulse transmission, the rate of oxygen delivery to the muscles and the speed of the reactions associated with the production of ATP. Therefore, in this context, a warm up may be said to optimise the condition of the body.

Cooling Down

A cool-down involves a short period at the end of an exercise session during which the physical activity of the body is gradually reduced to almost its resting level. A cool-down therefore often involves a period of low-impact aerobic exercise which is gradually reduced, followed by a few gentle stretching exercises. This has a number of effects.

The gentle aerobic activity helps to get rid of any metabolic waste products which may have accumulated during the exercise session. The benefits of an active recovery are believed to be related to the muscles continuing to receive a more extensive supply of oxygenated blood, which will also assist with the removal of metabolic waste products.

During exercise the blood is being pumped around the body by the action of the heart. However, the blood is assisted in its return to the heart via the venous system and muscular contraction. If an athlete stops exercising suddenly, the heart continues to beat fast, sending blood around the body, but, because the exercise has ceased, the blood is no longer assisted in its return to the heart. It is suggested that this is one of the reasons why people sometimes feel faint after exercise. During a cool-down, the heart rate is gradually lowered to its resting level and the venous return continues to be assisted by the actively contracting muscles, thereby preventing this problem.

After exercising, and following the cool-down period, the athlete’s heart will still need a period of time to settle back down to its full resting rate but should be within 30 beats of what it was before the exercise session started. This will, of course, be influenced by the overall physical condition of the individual. It may also be influenced by the content of the session, with more demanding sessions requiring a more extensive cool-down. The cooling down period also provides an opportunity for the inclusion of additional stretching exercises, which may be desirable especially if they were not included as part of the main session. The inclusion of stretching exercises within the cool-down period not only helps to gradually lower the activity level of the body at the end of the session, but it may also prevent stiffness the following day.

The cool-down period is also likely to take place when the body is warm, making the muscles more receptive to stretching. The most effective stretching can therefore be performed at this time.

Four Different Types of Roofing Materials

A home can never be complete without a roof. Roofing is obviously the very first line of defense against any harsh weather, as well as other types of elements which could affect a certain home’s quality, appearance and value. Therefore, it is significant to put some thought into choosing the right type of materials for your roof. The good news is that there is always a wide variety of choices in materials and manufacturers to choose from for quality roofing.

To begin with, an asphalt material shingle is a very common type of product, especially with American homes. It will work great for a wide range of styles of roofs and may be a perfect choice for your home. Asphalt shingles do not cost that much and run from around 1 to 5 dollars for every square foot depending on your provider, as well as the kind of home that you have.

Asphalt roofing shingles come with a lot of advantages for your home. Usually the most important factor to a home owner, it is affordable. Secondly, this kind of roofing is a lot easier to repair compared to others. It can work well on just about any style of roof and is manufactured in various colors, shapes, depths of dimensions. This kind of roofing material is also resistant to any effect that great heat from the sun and inclement weathers conditions could cause.

Now, let’s move on to the second type of roof which is rubberized materials. This is an eco-friendly choice that can assure durability, cost-effectiveness and also proven to be leak proof even when it’s made from various recycled materials. Also, it does no require heavy maintenance due to the light weight and flexibility it carries. Rubber roofing comes in two types: shingled and whole roof. The shingled ones are made from synthetic materials and are better for simple structured homes while the whole roofs are great for a more detailed architectural design.

The third kind would be the tile roofing which is considered as an internationally recognized type of roofing. Just like the above types, this one can ensure durability. As a matter of fact, it is proven to be invulnerable from fire. Also, its longevity could last for up to 100 years and can highly improve air ventilation. Tile roofing comes in various patterns, textures, colors and shapes which can make things more fun upon the process of choosing the right ones in order to bring true elegance out of your home through the roofing.

Last but not the least, wood roofing is popular for homes that need to undergo major renovations. This roofing material usually runs anywhere from 4 to 8 dollars for every square foot. The price also depends on the way of cutting. Wood roofing is essential if you want to give your home a warmer look. It also has the great ability to prevent the occurrence of heat transmission.

Any of these types of roofs can be a great choice for you to make. However, it is still best to consider getting consultation from an expert in order to know what’s best for the type of home that you have in terms of safety, design and efficiency.

Hemorrhoids and Anal Warts

It’s pretty bad when you find out you’ve got hemorrhoids, but it can be a lot worse if you get hemorrhoids confused with another health issue. I mean, the pain, anxiety and embarrassment of discovering something wrong in the anal area is bad enough, much less not knowing exactly what you’ve got. On the bright side, there aren’t too many health conditions that can come up in that area. One of the most common health conditions confused with hemorrhoids is anal warts. While neither is very much fun, they stem from entirely different causes and are treated in very different ways.

Anal warts, also known as condyloma acuminata, are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). This virus is highly contagious and most often transmitted through sexual intercourse. Some strains of HPV can lead to increased risk of cervical cancer, but these are not the same strains as the ones that cause anal warts. The virus gets into the skin or mucous tissue cells and starts making them grow in the distinctive wart pattern. HPV infection does not lead to hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids originate from weak points in hemorrhoidal veins below the skin or mucous tissue. As the weak point gives way, it stretches out and takes surrounding tissue with it. Traumatized hemorrhoids may get infected with a variety of bacteria and/or viruses, but infection does not lead to hemorrhoids. That would be like putting the cart before the horse.

Anal warts and hemorrhoids can both feel like lumps or masses of tissue around the anal area. However, there are several differences that can lead to a proper identification upon close inspection. While doing a close inspection may not sound like fun, it’s much better than trying unsuccessfully to treat the wrong thing. Upon said close inspection, anal warts have a distinctive “rough” texture and range in size from the head of a pin to about the size of a pea and are rather hard to the touch. They occur in clusters around the anal opening and may sometimes continue up towards the genital area. They almost never occur alone. Hemorrhoids, on the other hand, have a smooth texture that’s identical to the tissue they originate from, whether that’s external skin or internal mucous membrane. They are often soft or “squishy” to the touch, and they range in size from the size of a pea to the size of a grape. You’ll never find them anywhere except right around the anal opening. In addition, warts almost never hurt, though they may itch a bit. External hemorrhoids, on the other hand, often hurt quite a lot.

Hemorrhoids are usually best treated at home through a high-fiber diet, a healthy amount of exercise, and easily obtained over the counter relief. Home remedies often work well on hemorrhoids and surgery is only rarely needed. Anal warts, on the other hand, always have to be treated surgically, usually on an outpatient basis. The warts will not go away on their own. Instead, a physician has to use liquid nitrogen to freeze them off. In addition, hemorrhoids can often be kept away by keeping the lifestyle changes that were made to help cure them. Anal warts will often come back for no reason under your control, because the virus can live dormant in your skin cells for a long time. One day that virus can wake up and bam, you’ve got anal warts again.

So, as you can see, getting anal warts confused with hemorrhoids can lead to some serious problems. At the least you’ll be stuck trying to treat a problem you don’t have for a while. Why waste all that time and discomfort? If you can’t figure out what you’ve got on your own, make a doctor’s appointment and get your diagnosis confirmed. It’ll save you a lot of trouble, pain and grief in the long run.

IPv4 Vs IPv6 (Advantages and Disadvantages)

We can see the rapid growth of internet users in last few years and this increase also create challenges for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. Day by day infrastructure of internet is expanding and we can even enjoy the service of internet in villages and remote areas. Increased of usage also increase online devices. In start internet protocol addressing (a specific IP addressing for each online entity) was designed on 32 bit and this scheme IP version called IPv4.IPv4 addressing is like 203.128.076.001. decimal is used to make the IPv4 addresses more palatable for humans and a 32-bit address becomes 4 decimal numbers separated by the period (.) character. If we calculate these decimal values and we can get the total number of devices can be participate on this protocol (256x256x256x256) = allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses. It is about 4 billion of addresses and in early days of internet no one can think, 4 billion slot will be full. here we shall discus some disadvantages of IPv4 as we have seen addressing capability problem and after that we shall go through the solution which will replace IPv4 and addressing structure of the new addressing scheme. we shall go through some disadvantages of IPv4 and new features of IPv6.

Rapid Growth of the Internet and the Exhaustion of the IPv4 Addressing

IPv4 allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses which is about 4 billion and IP allocation limits the public IP addresses to a few hundred million. Cause of this limitation companies using NAT (Network Address Translator) to map single public IP to multiple private IP addresses.

IPv4 Security at IP Level

When we communicate at public medium we need to encrypt data to maintain security and privacy. After a passage of time we have now security for IPv4 packets. This security knows as internet protocol security or IPSec but this is an optional for IPv4.

Internet Backbone Maintaining Large Routing Tables

In IPv4 network IDs allocation is very critical and currently more than 87000 routes in the routing tables of internet backbone routers today. The routing infrastructure is based on flat and hierarchical routing.

Quality of Service Concern in IPv4

Now a days internet users are not only limited with browsing and searching data. Current users are well aware of text and voice and video chat and video conferences and online video libraries. This kind of communication need real time data transfer for quality of service. Normally for these kind of services we use UDP (User Data-gram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and, over time, has been redefined and locally interpreted. Additionally, payload identification that uses a TCP or UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.

IPv6

As we can see we have some basic problems in practice of IPv4 now we will check some new features of IPv6. here I like to describe the some of basic features of IPv6. Deployment of IPv6 is a big challenge for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. It is difficult but not impossible. We can see benefits of IPv6 here. Biggest upgrade jump from IPv4 32 bit to IPv6 128 bit.

IPv6 Header Format

New header is designed to minimize header overhead. by moving both nonessential and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers and that generates efficiency. IPv6 is 4 time larger than IPv4 and its header size is twice than older version.

IPv6 Large Addressing Space

In IPv6 source and destination addresses is based on 128 bit. 128 bit addressing can produce over 3.4 x 1038 possible combinations. Currently we can say this is enough but who know about future may be it also face same problem like IPv4 after some decades. 128 bit addressing allow us multiple levels of sub-netting and address allocation. So we can say that we have plenty of address for use in future.

Addressing and Routing Infrastructure Efficiency in IPv6

IPv6 designed to create an efficient, hierarchical, and summarize able routing infrastructure that is based on the common occurrence of multiple levels of Internet Service Providers. It reduce the size of routing table of backbone routers. Which is can cause of efficient internet experience.

Security features is now built-in

IPv6 has been design to support IPsec (AH and ESP header support required) also support mobility version Mobile IPv6. IPSec based on two types of extension headers and a protocol to negotiate security settings. The Authentication header (AH) provides data integrity, data authentication, and replay protection for the entire IPv6 packet. It is better form developers who built-in security features in development of IPv6 rather we bolt on later.

Quality of Service (QoS) of IPv6

As we have already seen about the UDP and TCP protocols for streaming and other multimedia services on internet. Cause the usage of these services are increasing day by day IPv6 have a flow level field in its header which make better and special handling for packets from source to destination. Data traffic is identified in the IPv6 header, support for QoS can be achieved even when the packet payload is encrypted with IPSec and ESP.

Thomas Nagel And His Article On Death

Thomas Nagel begins his collection of essays with a most intriguing discussion about death. Death being one of the most obviously important subjects of contemplation, Nagel takes an interesting approach as he tries to define the truth as to whether death is, or is not, a harm for that individual. Nagel does a brilliant job in attacking this issue from all sides and viewpoints, and it only makes sense that he does it this way in order to make his own observations more credible.

He begins by looking at the very common views of death that are held by most people in the world, and tells us that he will talk of death as the “unequivocal and permanent end to our existence” and look directly at the nature of death itself (1). The first view that Nagel decides to discuss is the view that death is bad for us because it deprives us of more life. Most people are in the view that life is good; even though some experiences in life can be bad, and sometimes tragic, the nature of life itself is a very positive state. Nagel also adds that when the experiences of life are put aside, this state is still positive, and not simply “neutral” (2).

Nagel goes further to point out some important observations about the value of life. Mere “organic survival” cannot be said to be a component of value (2). Nagel gives the example of death and being in a coma before dying. Both of these situations would be equally bad situations. Another observation is that “like most goods” the value can become greater with time (2).

Looking now at what is bad about death instead of what is good about life, Nagel presents some obvious thoughts regarding this point. Life is good because we have the conscious ability to experience and appreciate all that life has to offer. So death is bad because it deprives us of these experiences, not because the actual state of death is bad for us.

The next point that Nagel makes is that there are certain indications that show how people do not object to death simply because it “involves long periods of nonexistence” (3). It is said that people would not look at the temporary “suspension” of life as a terrible misfortune, because the fact that it is temporary tells us that this will ultimately bring the state back to that of conscious life. Also, we do not look at the state being before we are born as a misfortune, or deprivation of life, because that life has not yet begun and, (as Nagel states later), he refutes the possible argument that the person could have been born earlier and had more life, with the fact that if that person was born substantially earlier, he would cease to be that person, but instead someone else entirely.

Nagel discusses next three problems. The first is a view that there are no evils that are not rooted in a person consciously “minding” those evils. Nagel puts this view in to easier terms by saying that this is the same as saying “what you don’t know can’t hurt you” (4). There are several examples that can illustrate this theory. People who think this way would say that it is not a harm for a person to be ridiculed behind his back, if he doesn’t know about it. If he doesn’t experience the evil, it is not bad for him. Nagel thinks this view is wrong. The natural discovery here is that it is bad to be betrayed, this is what makes the whole situation unfortunate; not because the discovery of this betrayal makes us unhappy.

The second problem is that which has to do with who the subject of harm caused by death is, and when exactly this occurs. Harm can be experienced by a person before death, nothing can be experienced after death, so when is death itself experienced as a harm? The third problem deals with posthumous and prenatal existence.

Contemplating the good or bad aspects of death, Nagel observes that we must look at the possible circumstances surrounding a death, and the pertinent history of the person who dies. This is important because we miss a lot that is important to the argument if what we take into consideration is exclusively the state of the person at the moment of death. Nagel gives an example of a very intelligent man sustaining an injury that causes him to regress to the mental capacity of an infant. His needs can be fulfilled like those of an infant and be kept happy as long as simple needs are met. His family and friends would look at this as a terrible misfortune, even though the man himself is not aware of his loss. This situation is unfortunate because of the deprivation of what might have been had he not been injured in this way. He could have gone on to accomplish great things for the world and his family, and live out his life through old age as an accomplished and acclaimed individual. This would have lead him to great happiness, but it can be observed that this same man in a state of mental capacity to match that of a child is also happy, but Nagel agrees that what happened to this man is a tragedy because of the terrible loss of the life the intelligent man could have led. This situation can relate to death in this way of thinking about deprivation. Death is bad because it robs you of what could have been.

After making these observations, Nagel states that “This case should convince us that it is arbitrary to restrict the goods and evils that can befall a man to non-relational properties ascribable to him at particular times” (6). There are endless circumstances and happenings going on that affect a person’s fortune or misfortune. Many of these never coincide directly to the person’s life. We must consider that there is no way to pinpoint the exact position of a misfortune in a person’s life, nor a way to define the origin. People have dreams and goals in life that may or may not be fulfilled. There is no way to find all of the circumstances and possibilities that go into whether or not these hopes and dreams are eventually fulfilled, but Nagel tells us that we must simply accept that “If death is an evil, it must be accounted for in these terms, and the impossibility of locating it within life should not trouble us” (7).

There are some who view the time before birth and the time after death as the same. We exist in neither, though Nagel argues that there is a difference. This whole essay has expressed exactly his view that though we do not exist in either case, death deprives us of time that we could have been living our lives.

Nagel makes an interesting observation about whether we can assign as a misfortune an event or aspect of life which is normal to all humans in general. We all know that we all will die and that the maximum amount of life is somewhere around 100 years. So is it still plausible to say this is a misfortune? He also gives the example of moles, which are blind. It is not a misfortune for a mole to be blind because they are all blind, and they will never know sight and be able to appreciate it. But Nagel also presents the example of a situation in which everyone goes through six months of pain and anguish before dying. Everyone knows that this is going to happen, but does that make the event any less of an event to dread and fear?

We are brought into this world and brought up with aspects of our lives that we appreciate. The deprivation of these things that we learn to appreciate is a misfortune, because we have learned to live with these privileges. It is unfathomable for a human being to grasp the concept of a finite life, in the truest meaning of understanding. We do not think of our lives right now as a set out plan or a finite sequence of events. We do not live day to day thinking of what we should do according to how much time we have left. Our lives are essentially an open-ended sequence of good and bad circumstances and possibilities. Death is the abrupt interruption of this sequence that we cannot help but be in the mindset will never end. This is how death is a deprivation, and ultimately, a bad thing for a person.

In conclusion, Nagel offers a good argument in his essay on death about death itself being a harm. Whether a person believes in the immortal life or not, it must still be considered that dying deprives you of the goods and experiences of life. This view seems unavoidable. A person who dies at age 92 has lived a full life to the best of his ability and has experienced more than someone who dies at age 32. The person dying at age 32 had many things that he wished to accomplish and experience in his life, and since the event of death has taken away all possibility of any of these goals coming to pass, and undermines all the work that he has put forth up to that point in pursuit of his goals, death is a terrible tragedy for him.

Work Cited

Nagel, Thomas. Mortal Questions. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979.

Easy Songs To Play On Guitar With 4 Simple Open Chords

Learning Chords

For most beginners at guitar playing, the first goal is to learn some easy songs to play on the guitar. And one of the main challenges here is learning all the guitar chords needed in order to be able to play those songs.

And that’s not always an easy thing to accomplish. Many songs uses chords that seem to have been invented for no other reason than to make it impossible to play. No wonder you give up on those songs. They have to wait until you get better at guitar playing.

G-Em-C-D

The Chord progression G-Em-C-D is a common (big understatement!) sequence all over the world, in all sorts of music styles. You can of course transpose to other chords, like C-Am-F-G or D-Bm-G-A and so on. Another way to “transpose” a song that not fits your voice is to use a capo at any fret you like.

I have compiled a little list of songs that I found that uses these chords. Many of them uses the progression all the way through the entire song, others are played with variations. And a few of them uses other chords as well.

The List

So here it is, my small gift to those of you who can’t find easy songs to play on guitar.

Here are the chords again, with two additional variations.

(C-Am-F-G), (G-Em-C-D), (D-Bm-G-A)

Stand by Me – Ben E. King

Heart and Soul – Hoagy Carmichael

The Thin Ice – Pink Floyd

Earth Angel – The Penguins (in family guy, back to the future etc.)

Donna – Ritchie Valens

Duke of Earl – Gene Chandler

Every Breath You Take – The Police

The Living Daylights – a-Ha

Last Kiss

Those Magic Changes and Beauty School Dropout – from Grease

Leader of the Pack

You Send Me

Blue Moon – Chris Isaak

Breaking Up Is Hard To Do – The Carpenters

Bubble Goose – Wyclef Jean

Teenager in Love – Dion & The Belmonts(?)

Fly On The Wings Of Love – The Olsen Brothers

Bus Station – Tom Russell

Heart Of Gold – Neil young

Stand By Me – Ben E King

Beautiful Girls – Sean Kingston

I’ve just seen a face – The Beatles

Last Kiss – Pearl Jam

Bleeding Love – Leona Lewis (I think?)

Single Ladies – Beyonce

Baby – Justin Bieber

Mary’s Song- Taylor Swift

Jump then Fall- Taylor Swift

Wrapped in your Arms- Fireflight

This magic moment

Up on the roof- The Drifters

Wonderful world – Herman Hermits

Lovers moon – Glenn Frye – My new favorite.

She will be loved – Maroon 5

His Latest Flame – Elvis.

I Only Want To Be With You – Dusty Springfield.

End Of The Line – Traveling Wilburys.

Puff The Magic Dragon – Peter, Paul and Mary

Kumbayah

Where Have All The Flowers Gone? – Pete Seeger

Look at the first song in this list. In all its simplicity “Stand By Me” is a fantastic song, and it has travelled with me through all these years. And it’s a very easy song to play on guitar.

If you like that song I’ll show you a very special version of it, at my website.